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Indian Journal of Clinical Anaesthesia


A comparative study on adding Dexmedetomidine versus Clonidine to epidural 0.125% Bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries


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Author Details: Swarnalingam Thangavelu, Shankar Anand Radhakrishnan, Nazir Ahmed Mallick

Volume : 3

Issue :

Online ISSN : 2394-4994

Print ISSN : 2394-4781

Article First Page : 468

Article End Page : 473


Abstract

Background: The pain experienced after upper abdominal surgery leads to a reduction in 70-75% of vital capacity which leads to postoperative pulmonary complications. The ideal adjuvant for epidural analgesia in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery seems to be every effective for better outcome and early immobilization in the immediate postoperative period. With this background we planned to conduct a study on epidural analgesia by comparing two alpha 2 agonists.
Methods: 50 patients who have planned for elective upper abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia were enrolled in our study. Before induction of general anaesthesia, epidural catheterization was done. The surgical procedure was carried out under routine general anaesthesia with endotracheal controlled ventilation. The patients were given either Dexmedetomidine or Clonidine in the dosage of 2mcg/Kg with 0.125% Bupivacaine via epidural catheter after extubation. Patients were shifted to Post Anaesthesia Care Unit for observation. Sedation and pain were assessed with monitoring of vital parameters. The side effects were also noted.
Results: Statistical analysis showed that the duration of analgesia was prolonged in the patients who received Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant with local anaesthetic agent (417.32±67.36 minutes, p value < 0.05). The time to first rescue analgesia was comparatively delayed in Dexmedetomidine group while comparing with Clonidine group (425.6±64.27 minutes, p value < 0.05). The incidence of hypotension and bradycardia was greater in Clonidine group. There was no significant statistical difference with respect to side effects in both groups.
Conclusion:  From our study we concluded that Dexmedetomidine provides both analgesia and sedation with better hemodynamic status while compared to Clonidine used as adjuvants in epidural analgesia. But needs further study to optimize the dosage of these two adjuvants while giving via epidural route along with local anaesthetic agent.

Keywords:
Dexmedetomidine, Clonidine, Epidural analgesia, Alpha 2 agonists