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Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology


Sub lingual thyroid - a case report


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Author Details: Nasreen Fatima Syeda, Sadia Sameera Syeda

Volume : 3

Issue : 3

Online ISSN : 2394-2126

Print ISSN : 2394-2118

Article First Page : 387

Article End Page : 390


Abstract

Introduction: A sub lingual thyroid anterior to the hyoid bone which is the only thyroid tissue present in the body is a rare entity. It was found due to failure of descent of the thyroid gland to its normal position.
Methods: 13-14 yr. old female presented with symptoms of severe sinusitis. CT scan was used to perform this study.
Result: A Sublingual thyroid gland present in front of the hyoid bone is observed and there was complete absence of thyroid gland at normal position.
Discussion: Incidence of lingual thyroid gland is reported as 1:100,000. It is manifested more in females.1:7 Ectopic thyroid tissue can occur anywhere from foramen caecum to its normal position i.e.; in front & sides of trachea at the level of 5th, 6th, 7th cervical & 1st thoracic vertebrae in the human body. 70% of patients with lingual thyroid are associated with hypothyroidism and 10% suffer from cretinism.
Conclusion: A sublingual thyroid due to failure of descent of the thyroid gland with congenital hypothyroidism. No known pathogenesis is present in this case. Thorough examination with follow up is important. A thyroid profile, hemogram, an x-ray of the neck & thyroid scan has to be done regularly with interval of at least once in 6 months. Unless there is need for emergency surgery, it should not be performed. Patient should be treated symptomatically. There should be hormonal essay done for every child born and treated as early as possible to avoid the consequences. Starting of treatment in patients with congenital problems of hormones can help the patient to lead a normal life.

Keywords
: Lingual thyroid gland; Foramen caecum; Ectopic; Hypothyroidism; Cretinism