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Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology


Autonomic reactivity in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal Women


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Author Details: Shivwani, Anjali Nadir Bhat, Suresh Kotwal, Zahida Parveen

Volume : 4

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2394-2126

Print ISSN : 2394-2118

Article First Page : 218

Article End Page : 221


Abstract

The autonomic nervous system controls most of the visceral functions of the body through the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nerve fibers. In postmenopausal women, the risk of cardiovascular diseases gradually increases and alterations in autonomic nerve functions commonly affect cardiac vagal control. In women, the withdrawal of the hormones in the perimenopausal and the menopausal period is gradual. The present study was aimed to assess the autonomic functions in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. This study was conducted on 210 women volunteers, who were divided into three groups of 70 each, namely Group I (premenopausal), Group II (perimenopausal) and Group III (postmenopausal). The sympathetic function tests performed were blood pressure, blood pressure response to standing (orthostasis) and the isometric handgrip strength test (IHST). The parasympathetic tests conducted were standing to lying (S/L) ratio, 30:15 ratio, valsalva ratio and tachycardia ratio. All parameters were reported as mean and standard deviation. The study concluded that there is predominant sympathetic activity in postmenopausal women in comparison to premenopausal women. Parasympathetic activity altered slightly but not significantly in postmenopausal women.

Keywords:
Autonomic nervous system, Postmenopausal, Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, Nerve fibers, Cardiac vagal control