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Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology


Association between plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and ABO blood group system and in north Gujarat, India


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Author Details: Manish Lamoria, Alkesh Vara, Soumi H Chaudhuri

Volume : 4

Issue : 3

Online ISSN : 2394-2126

Print ISSN : 2394-2118

Article First Page : 348

Article End Page : 352


Abstract

Introduction: Malaria is a troublesome protozoan disease to control in tropical and subtropical countries because of menace of mosquito vector and humans easily susceptible to its bite. It is estimated to infect 200 million people and 1-3 million deaths a year according to the WHO. Among them the virulence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most by the virtue of rosetting. Rosetting means adherence between infected and uninfected RBCs, which together can hinder peripheral and terminal microvasculature circulation, thus, leading to most of the dreaded complications of this disease.
Objectives: To study the distribution of blood groups in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and to evaluate the complications and deaths associated with it in admitted patients of GMERS Medical College and Hospital, Patan, Gujarat. This study also includes corroborating the hypothesis whether O blood group confers any protection against dire complications of plasmodium falciparum infection as widely believed.
Materials and Method: The study was conducted from February 2012 to February-2015 (3years) on 162 confirmed patients of falciparum malaria who were admitted in GMERS Medical College, Patan and were diagnosed by thin and thick peripheral blood smear examination. Patients of all age groups were included. Control group included 1660 healthy volunteers donating blood in blood bank of the hospital. Blood grouping was done by conventional agglutination test using Monoclonal Antisera A and B on porcelain tile. The following Investigations were also collected; serum hemoglobin, platelet count, serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, random blood sugar. Complications like coma, convulsion, hypoglycemia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, hypotension, shock, respiratory distress and cause of death if any occurred were duly noted.
Results: Out of 162 diseased patients studied in 3 years duration, percentage of patients of each blood group were A:33.80%, B:30.64%, O:24.20%, AB:11.29% respectively with blood group A has highest relative risk of 1.38 of contracting the disease among all four groups. Total 15 of 162 patients died with 6 patients each belonging to group A and B and 3 patients of group AB.
Conclusion: As per this study and statistics prevalence of plasmodium falciparum malaria was found to be more among blood group A and B, along with its complications. Although blood group O patients were also not found to be immune to the infection, the presence of complications and death were indeed next to nought in them.

Keywords
: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, ABO blood group, Red blood cell, O Blood group, Rosetting