IP International Journal of Medical Microbiology and Tropical Diseases


Crimean—Congo Haemorrhagic Fever: A Real Threat to India


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Author Details: Maitri Shah, Piyush K. Pujara

Volume : 2

Issue : 1

Online ISSN : 2581-4761

Print ISSN : 2581-4753

Article First Page : 24

Article End Page : 26


Abstract

Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Crimean–Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae causes a zoonotic disease in many countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and south-eastern Europe. The disease was first described in the Crimea in 1944-45 when more than 200 cases of an acute, hemorrhagic, febrile illness occurred soldiers and given the name Crimean haemorrhagic fever. The CCHF virus is a member of the Nairovirus genus under family Bunyaviridae, which has four other genera, namely, Hantavirus, Phlebovirus, Orthobunyavirus, and Tospovirus. The onset of CCHF is sudden, with initial signs and symptoms including headache, high fever, back pain, joint pain, stomach pain, and vomiting. Red eyes, a flushed face, a red throat, and petechiae (red spots) on the palate are common. Symptoms may also include jaundice, and in severe cases, changes in mood and sensory perception. As the illness progresses, large areas of severe bruising, severe nosebleeds, and uncontrolled bleeding at injection sites can be seen, beginning on about the fourth day of illness and lasting for about two weeks. In documented outbreaks of CCHF, fatality rates in hospitalized patients have ranged from 9% to as high as 50%. There is no approved CCHF vaccine available and therapy is restricted to treatment of the symptoms. Health education and information on prevention and behavioral measures are most important in order to enhance public risk perception and, therefore, decrease the probability of infections. Thus the identification of endemic areas is crucial for focused and targeted implementation of public health measures.

Key words:
CCHF, Haemorrhagic fever, Petechiae, Prevention, Tropical diseases