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IP International Journal of Medical Microbiology and Tropical Diseases


Canine parvovirus-2: an insight into molecular diagnosis and characterization methods


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Author Details: Vikas Gupta, Vinod Kumar Singh

Volume : 2

Issue : 3

Online ISSN : 2581-4761

Print ISSN : 2581-4753

Article First Page : 84

Article End Page : 89


Abstract

Canine parvovirus is an extremely contagious and serious disease caused by Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). The disease was first reported in 1978 and since then it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. The virus can infect dogs of all breeds and wild carnivores, leading to considerable morbidity and mortality in young canines. The mortality rate may approach up to 90% in untreated cases of CPV infection whereas with timely and appropriate therapy, survival rates can be 80-95%. Infected dogs during recovery from the disease and the subclinical shedder dogs are the major source of infection for contact animals and the environment contamination. To reduce the spread of the virus among the susceptible population and to help timely implementation of proper supportive treatment, rapid identification of the disease and isolation of CPV-2 positive animals at these stages of infection is vital. There are a number of methods developed for the laboratory confirmation of CPV infection viz., electron microscopy, virus isolation in cell culture, hemagglutination test, hemagglutination inhibition test, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and many molecular assays, which are usually carried out on the feces of affected dogs and the blood samples at late stages of infection. Since the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of CPV-2 is important for the timely treatment and control of CPV-2, the present review is focused on various nucleic acid detection based tests for rapid, sensitive and optimal diagnosis and characterization methods to aid in formulation of effective control strategies.

Keywords:
Canine parvovirus; Molecular diagnosis; Characterization