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Indian Journal of Microbiology Research


Leptospirosis in non-endemic areas in and around Dharwad District


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Author Details: Mahesh Kumar Shankar, Akshat Vij, Sheethal S, Asha B. Patil

Volume : 4

Issue : 3

Online ISSN : 2394-5478

Print ISSN : 2394-546X

Article First Page : 283

Article End Page : 286


Abstract

Introduction: Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of pathogenic spirochete has gained public health importance in India due to several outbreaks in recent years. The disease is prevalent in Kerala, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Andamans, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported from 15 districts of Karnataka. Serological testing is the most widely used diagnostic means. IgM ELISA is promising for detection of early leptospirosis.
Objectives: The present study determines the prevalence and clinical profiles of leptospirosis in and around Dharwad district.
Materials and Method: This was a prospective study conducted in patients clinically suspected of leptospirosis from January 2013 to December 2015. Blood samples were tested for positive leptospirosis by IgM ELISA.
Results: A total of 375 samples were tested during the study; of these, 39 samples were tested in 2013 with 16 positives, all hailing from Uttara Kannada. In 2014, 44/125 samples and in 2015, 25/211 samples tested positive for leptospirosis with majority of the patients belonging to adult age group (>12 years age). These cases belonged to non-endemic areas like Haveri, Dharwad and Gadag. Male predominance was noteworthy in 2013 and 2014 unlike in 2015.
Conclusion: Cases of leptospirosis have been detected in non-endemic areas after heavy rainfall and flooding. Increased awareness among physicians regarding early diagnosis of leptospirosis and fever of unknown origin especially after water related natural calamities even in non-endemic regions is of paramount significance which may help in providing better healthcare management of leptospirosis.

Keywords:
Fever of unknown origin, Leptospirosis, Natural calamities, Non-endemic areas, Zoonotic disease