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IP Indian Journal of Neurosciences


Neurocognitive deficit in HIV Patient: An Update


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Author Details: Ritu Nehra, Aseem Mehra, Rajesh Gupta, M.Spoorthy

Volume : 1

Issue : 1

Online ISSN : 2581-916X

Print ISSN : 2581-8236

Article First Page : 8

Article End Page : 17


Abstract

The HIV-1 (Human immuno deficiency Virus) epidemic enters its fifth decade. HIV-1 associated neurological disorders (HAND) continue to be a major concern in the infected population, despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy. The introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly reduced the mortality secondary to opportunistic infections in HIV patients by restoring the immune system. In the central nervous system (CNS), there has also been benefit with a marked reduction of HIV associated dementia. However, the milder forms of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), namely asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and mild neurocognitive disorder, remain prevalent in the cART era. Currently, in clinical practice, patients with HIV are still visited to the psychiatric clinic for cognitive problem like memory, concentration etc. even when virology is under control. These usually begin with subtle changes but it can lead to more severe forms of neurocognitive impairment. The aim of this review is to describe the different types of neurocognitive disorders, possible mechanisms of development, epidemiology and risk factors in HIV patients, as well as the clinical approach and current treatment of HAND.