Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research


Study of cervical PAP smear at medical college hospital in a rural setup


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Author Details: R. Sujatha, Archana, N. Saravana Kumar, PM Subramaniam

Volume : 4

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2394-2754

Print ISSN : 2394-2746

Article First Page : 189

Article End Page : 192


Abstract

Background: Cervical carcinoma was once the most frequent form of cancer in women around the world. Since the introduction of the papanicolaou(pap) smear 50yrs ago, the incidence of cancer cervix has plummeted. It remains the most successful cancer screening test ever developed. In populations that are screened regularly, cancer cervix mortality is reduced by as much as 99%.
Objectives: This is a prospective study aimed to screen all OP patients with cervical smears from January 2015 to December 2016 at Annapoorana Medical College and Hospital, situated in a rural area at Salem. The main purpose was to study the incidence of pre-malignant and malignant lesions in small section of rural population in and around Annapoorana Medical College and Hospital. Those cases diagnosed clinically as carcinoma cervix were not included in this study.
Methods: Pap smear cytology reports and relevant clinical data noted in a structured proforma. Smears were reported as per the 2001 Bethesda system.
Results: A total of 500 pap smears were examined. There were 7 unsatisfactory or inadequate samples. NILM, Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, 458 of which 231 showed normal cytological findings and 227 showed non-neoplastic changes. Out of the total 42 abnormal pap smears, only 24 cases reported to have epithelial cell abnormality. The 24 abnormal cases consist of 9 with ASCUS, 11 LSIL, 3 HSIL, 1 invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
Conclusion: Useful in diagnosing malignant and pre-malignant lesions of Cervix. The epithelial cell abnormality rate is 4.8% in our study, comparable to other studies. In developing nations like India with poor per capita incomes, it is a major challenge to devise screening programme which is cheap and widely applicable. Medical and paramedical staff can easily be trained to perform this simple test which reduces the incidence and mortality of cancer cervix.

Keywords:
Pap smear, Cervical cytology, Screening, Cancer cervix