Volume : 6
Issue : 1
Online ISSN : 2394-2754
Print ISSN : 2394-2746
Article First Page : 41
Article End Page : 45
Introduction: Vaginal discharge is a normal physiological discharge which is usually white or clear, non-offensive and varies with menstrual cycle. Abnormal vaginal discharge if untreated can lead to cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary tract infection and also infertility. As abnormal vaginal discharge presents vaguely in a clinical set up, diagnosis is made by laboratory confirmation for rapid identification of causative pathogens and appropriate treatment.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study where records of clinically suspected vaginitis/cervicitis cases from Jan 2016 till June 2018 were studied. History, general examination findings, per speculum and pelvic examination findings, investigations performed and treatment given were collected for these cases and the data was analyzed.
The amount, odor, color, pH and consistency of vaginal discharge were noted. Three high vaginal swabs were taken from every patient using sterile swab sticks and labeled. The tests include: saline wet mount, KOH mount and Grams stain. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed using the Amsel's clinical criteria and standard microbiological techniques. The collected samples were also cultured on MacConkey’s agar, Blood agar and Sabouraud’s Dextrose agar for aerobic bacterial and fungal cultures respectively. The antibiotic sensitivity testing of all isolates was performed by Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar and interpreted as per CLSI guidelines.
Results: This is a retrospective study where records of clinically suspected vaginitis/cervicitis cases were studied. A total of 1680 clinically suspected vaginitis/cervicitis case records were collected in this study. Out of 1680 cases, only 475 (28.27%) cases were positive for growth of a pathogen and the remaining 1205 (71.72%) cases either showed no growth or no pathogens were isolated. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 120 (7.14%) cases and trichomoniasis was diagnosed in 51 (3.03%) cases. Out of the 475 samples positive for growth, most common isolate was Escherichia coli (195, 41.05%), followed by Coagulase negative staphylococcus (130, 27.36%).
Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the most common organism causing infection in our study population followed by Coagulase negative staphylococcus. Clinical diagnosis along with complete microbiological evaluation is necessary to determine the causative agents of vaginal infections for appropriate management.
Keywords: Abnormal vaginal discharge, Vaginitis, Cervicitis, High vaginal swabs.