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Indian Journal of Pathology and Oncology


Clinico Histopathological Overview of GIT Lesions in a Rural Hospital


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Author Details: Rajesh Y. Thakur, Dhiraj B. Nikumbh, Sunil Y. Swami

Volume : 3

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2394-6792

Print ISSN : 2394-6784

Article First Page : 305

Article End Page : 314


Abstract

Introduction: Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the important site for wide variety of lesions especially malignant tumors. GIT cancers constitute 15-25% of all cancer burdens. The primary aim of GI pathology is to provide essential diagnostic and prognostic information allowing physicians and surgeons the best clinical management of the individual patient.
Aim: We undertake this study to find out the various histopathological spectrum of the GIT lesions and to correlate them with clinical presentations, age, sex and to find the density of various GIT lesions in rural area.
Materials and Methods: The prospective study of 800 patients having gastrointestinal lesion were included in this study over a period of 30 months from Jan 2012 to July 2014. The materials were collected in the form of biopsy and resected specimens of gastrointestinal tract with relevant clinical history. The superficial biopsy, biopsy with artifacts and inadequate material/history were excluded from the study. The histopathological diagnoses were categorized as inflammatory and tumors -benign and malignant lesion.
Results: Amongst 800 cases studied of GI lesions, majority were inflammatory lesions as acute appendicitis and chronic appendicitis comprising 88.5% with a peak incidence in the 20-30 decades. In tumors, malignant lesions of gastrointestinal tract constituted 88.3% while benign tumor constituted 11.6% only. Colorectal cancers were seen having highest frequency (61.5%) followed by oesophagus (18.8%), stomach (7.5%), small intestine (1.8%). Male patient were outnumbered by female patients in both inflammatory and tumors category.
Conclusion: Histopathological evaluation is the gold standard for the early detection of GI tract lesions especially malignant one hence it helps in their early management. Our study of gastrointestinal tract lesions throws a light on early diagnosis by histopathology beneficial for the patients in rural area.

Key Words
: GIT, Tumors, Histopathology, Malignant, Adenocarcinoma