Introduction: Pancytopenia refers to simultaneous presence of anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Multiple disorders either primarily or secondarily affecting bone marrow, manifest with various haematological derangements and is commonly presented as pancytopenia. Identification of the disease is of prime importance, since this is the key to appropriate management.
Aim: The main aim of this study is to diagnose and evaluate various causes of pancytopenia.
Materials and methods: Seventy five cases of pancytopenia were included in the study. Two millilitres of EDTA anticoagulated blood was collected and analyzed by automated haematology analyser ADVIA2120. Haematological parameters were recorded, peripheral smear and bone marrow smears studied.
Results: Bone marrow aspiration was helpful in identifying the cause of pancytopenia. There was female preponderance and the age ranged between 2yrs to 75 yrs. The most common cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anaemia (68%) followed by hypoplastic/aplastic marrow (13.3%) and leukaemia/lymphoma (5.33%).
Conclusion: This study showed that the most common cause of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia and that is reversible by therapy. Thus in pancytopenia, thorough evaluation has to be done to identify the cause at the earliest, so the treatable causes are identified without delay and the patient is benefited.
Keywords: Anaemia, Pancytopenia, Leucopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Megaloblastic