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Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology


Role of chromium compounds in diabetes


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Author Details: Anisha Prasad

Volume : 3

Issue : 1

Online ISSN : 2393-9087

Print ISSN : 2393-9079

Article First Page : 17

Article End Page : 23


Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus is a complex disease where the carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism is deranged and co-exists with insulin resistance. The defect is either in the secretion of insulin, in the insulin receptors or post receptor events1. It manifests as hyperglycemic state with dyslipidemia and other metabolic defects. Insulin promotes glucose uptake through its receptor located in the cell surface by generating signal that results in the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) to cell surface. Thereafter, glucose is transported to the cytoplasm through these receptors by facilitated diffusion in the muscle cell and the adipose tissues. In type 2 DM, the muscle cells and adipose tissues are resistant to this signaling pathway2-7. Trivalent chromium (Cr) vital micronutrient obtained from diet which serves to potentiate insulin action and maintenance of normal glucose tolerance. Studies suggest, chromium is an essential cofactor that is required for optimum insulin activity9-11. Cr increases insulin receptor numbers8 on cell surface of the target cells hence facilitates more insulin-receptor binding. Trivalent Cr, especially Cr tri-picolinate and chromium histidinate are effective in insulin resistance. Chromium replacement is essential in deficient conditions and this fact has been well established, the aim of this review is to assess the role of chromium in the pathology of diabetes.

Keywords:
Chromium, Diabetes mellitus, Insulin, Glucose