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The Journal of Community Health Management


Relation of Sanitary Conditions of Water Sources and Water Borne Diseases in Rural House Holds of South India


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Author Details: Thayyil Jayakrishnan, Thomas Bina, Kuniyil Vidya, Biju George, Bhaskar Rao B, Selvam Paramasivam

Volume : 3

Issue :

Online ISSN : 2394-2738

Print ISSN : 2394-272X

Article First Page : 85

Article End Page : 91


Abstract

Background: Access to safe drinking water has long been a central aim of public health. In India 85% of rural house holds have access to drinking water within or near to their premises through any improved sources and 70% of the household water sources were polluted with sewage. Water borne disease (WBD) account for 10% of total burden of disease.
Objectives: To assess the sanitary conditions of household drinking water sources, and hygienic practices of community and the incidence of water borne disease. To find out the relation of water borne disease with the former two parameters.
Methodology: A longitudinal study was conducted in the Kerala state of
India including 1459 persons from 300 households as study subjects. Water samples were collected and analysis was done. The data analysis was performed using SPPSS 16 version.
Results: During the 12 month follow up period 72 episodes of water borne disease were reported with an  incidence rate of 49/1000  person years. Dug wells were the major household water sources (93.3%)and up to 30% water sources contain indicator bacteria Escherichia coli ,and  more than 60% water sources contain Fecal coli from >10MPN/100 ml in all the seasons. Stagnant water at their premises was found to be associated with WBD (RR=3.58, 95% CI 1.90 -6.73, P=0.01) and proximity within 15meters from the septic tanks was found to be associated with increased incidence of WBD (RR=2.2, 95%CI 1.00- 4.63, P=0.04).
Conclusion: Our study found that improved water sources are not free from bacteriological contamination. The structures which included in the criteria for a sanitary well may not always protect the consumers from the risks of WBD.

Key words:
Drinking water source, Water quality, dug well, Hygiene, Water borne disease