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Journal of Dental Specialities


Assessment of Langerhans cells using modified ATPase histochemistry technique: a pilot study


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Author Details: Arushi Pandey, Nirmala N Rao, Gurkiran Kaur

Volume : 4

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2393-9834

Print ISSN : 2320-7302

Article First Page : 152

Article End Page : 156


Abstract

Introduction: Langerhans cells are dendritic bone marrow derived cells situated suprabasally in most stratified squamous epithelia and behave as very potent antigen presenting cells. Routine Hematoxylin and Eosin staining cannot localize them in the epithelium, thus immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical techniques are employed.
Aim and Objectives: To develop a technique for staining Langerhans cells in tissues which is equally specific and sensitive while being relatively inexpensive in comparison to the contemporary techniques.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the oral pathology laboratory with post graduate teaching requirements. It mainly included a cryostat other than the routine set up equipment. The study included twenty histopathologically confirmed cases of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP). Four serial sections of each tissue were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) stain, ATP-lead substrate, control (absence of Adenosine triphosphate salt) and Masson’s Fontana stain and observed under the microscope for presence of Langerhans cells. A modified method for staining, to observe Langerhans cells, given by Juhlin L and Shelly WB was used.
Results: All twenty cases showed positive staining using the modified technique. The cells which were typified as Langerhans cells, were those with round/ovoid brown stained cells showing the presence of minimum of 2-3 dendritic processes from the cell surface. ATPase activity was found more localized in the cell membrane and dendrites.
Conclusion: The modified histochemistry technique for identifying Langerhans cells was found to be highly sensitive and specific, as well as, very cost effective.

Keywords:
ATPase; Histochemistry; Langerhans cells; Special stains