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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Holistic Health


A Case Control Study on Risk Factors of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Primary Health Centre Area of Karnataka


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Author Details: Kotresh M, Prashant Kumar

Volume : 1

Issue : 2

Online ISSN : 2454-6712

Print ISSN : 2454-6704

Article First Page : 53

Article End Page : 58


Abstract

Introduction: The developing country like India is often called “Diabetic capital of the world”. According to the Diabetes Atlas 2012, the number of people with diabetes in India currently around 63.0 million and prevalence was 9.01%.
Objectives: To identify the risk factors of type2 diabetes mellitus and to study the association of risk factors with the development of the disease.
Methods: A case control study was undertaken at Yalagodu PHC area among 100 known cases of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus & 100 controls, between February and March, 2014 using a predesigned pretested pro-forma. Chi Square test was applied as test of significance and Odds ratio was used to measure the strength of association.
Results: Increased risk of development of Diabetes Mellitus as age advances and males were predominant sufferers. Majority of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus were either overweight or obese. The odds ratio for stress was 3.95 indicating that the cases have 4 times more risk of occurrence of diabetes when compared to controls. About 60% of the cases and 27% of the controls had family history of type 2 DM. The odds ratio was 4.06 indicating that the risk of occurrence of type 2 DM is 4 times more in cases compared to controls. The odds ratio was 1.83 indicating that the risk of diabetes is 2 times in hypertensive compared to controls. About 72% of them were cases had ADA score of more than 30 and about 49% of the controls had ADA scores of more than 30.
Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is associated with positive family history, occupation, education, religion, diet, marital status, stress, hypertension, sedentary life style, smoking and alcohol consumption. People with a higher ADA score tend to develop diabetes mellitus more frequently.

Key words: Type-2Diabetes Mellitus, Risk factors, ADA score.