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Panacea Journal of Medical Sciences

Neurological manifestations in people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) in Central India with special reference to Neuroimaging: An initial experience

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Author Details: Khemuka Shreyash, Ratnaparkhi Chetana, Major Bhrushundi Milind, Patrikar Dhananjay, Mitra Kajal

Volume : 5

Issue : 3

Online ISSN : 2348-7682

Print ISSN : 2249-8176

Article First Page : 113

Article End Page : 118


AIDS is primarily an immune system disorder caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which can affect the nervous system. HIV does not directly invade nerve cells but it jeopardizes their function resulting in behavioral abnormalities, headaches, progressive weakness, motor as well as sensory impairment and damage to the peripheral nerves. With the advent of Magnetic resonance imaging and Computed tomography, it has become possible to differentiate most of these disease entities and accordingly the management of the patient. The present study was carried out to correlate neuro-imaging and immune status of patients. It was a cross-sectional study done in diagnosed cases of HIV infection referred for neuroimaging. Total of twenty patients of Neuro-AIDS were underwent neuroimaging i.e. Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging and were categorized in a particular HIV related Neurological disorder. Out of these the commonest neurological disorder was neuropsychiatric followed by cryptococcus meningitis, infarcts, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, viral encephalitis, cerebral atrophy, myelitis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculoma, Pott’s spine, and hydrocephalous. Neurological manifestations were also correlated with the Immune status and categorized in four categories. Imaging findings of most of the neurological disorders diagnosed on clinical and laboratory basis were then correlated with neuroimaging. Neuroimaging is important in diagnosing HIV patients presenting with neurological symptoms. Together with CD4 count and clinical manifestations neuroimaging helps in categorizing the HIV patients and planning the treatment.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, Acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome, Neuroimaging, Computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging.