A study on topography of clavicular neurovascular foramina and its surgical implications
Aim: To study the topography of clavicular nutrient foramina.
Materials and Methods: The topography of nutrient foramina was studied in 71 clavicles. The mean foraminal index was calculated using Hughes formula. The direction of foramen was also observed.
Results: The mean foraminal index was 36.31. The foramen was observed in the middle third of the clavicle in 87.32% cases and medial third in 12.68% cases. The foramen was observed in the inferior surface in 49.3% cases and posterior surface in 50.7% cases. No foramina were observed in the superior surface and in the lateral third of the clavicle.
Conclusion: The foramina are mainly observed in the middle third of the clavicle. Standard literatures describe that foramen are mainly seen in the inferior surface but in our study, we observed foramina in both inferior and posterior surface in high frequency. This knowledge of distribution of foramina is of great importance for orthopaedic surgeons in surgeries like internal fixation and bone grafting.
Keywords: Clavicle, Foraminal index, Periosteal vessels, Nutrient foramen, Surgical implications.