A clinical study of the pre-corneal tear film in diabetic and non-diabetic persons- a case control study
Introduction: Several local and systemic disorders predispose to the development of dry eye disease, common among them being diabetes mellitus. This study aims to assess the incidence of dry eye in diabetics and analyse the factors worsening dry eye in these patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients were included in the study. The participants were grouped under two groups- diabetics and non- diabetics group (control). All patients underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination including visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy of anterior segment. Corneal sensation, tear film break up time, schirmers test, flourescein staining, Rose Bengal and lissamine green staining were also done.
Results: Four hundred eyes of two hundred patients were included. There were a total of 86 (43%) males and 114 (57%) females in the study. The mean age of males was 50.13 years and the mean age of females was 50.27 years. In diabetics, 38 eyes (19%) had dry eye, out of which 24 eyes (63.15) were outdoor workers and 14 eyes (36.84%) were indoor workers and in non-diabetics, 14 eyes (7%) had dry eye out of which 12 eyes (85.71%) were of outdoor workers and 2 eyes (14.28%) were of indoor workers. Outdoor workers had statistically significant high risk of developing dry eye compared to indoor workers. Out of 52eyes with dry eye, 23 (88.46%) out of the 26 affected individuals were above 50 years of age and 3 (11.53%) were below 50 years of age. TBUT test was positive in 18 eyes (9%) in non-diabetics and 38 eyes (19%) in diabetic group. The schirmers values were significantly lower in diabetics compared to non-diabetics.
Conclusion: Diabetic patients are at more risk of developing dry eye compared to controls.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Dry eye, Schirmers test.